Photo Gallery

cold fusion one

The average D/Pd ratio within the cathode is determined by measuring the amount of orphaned oxygen produced within the cell. This quantity is measured by weighing the amount of oil released onto a balance from a reservoir connected to the cell by a small tube. Also show is a small reservoir on the balance which corrects for changes in atmospheric pressure. The cell contains a catalyst to recombine the stoichiometric D2 and O2 produced by electrolysis. This method is sensitive to changes of ±0.001 in the D/Pd ratio.

cold fusion two

This picture shows an early isoperibolic calorimeter which is stirred at a very accurate rate. The cell is surrounded by a jacket through which water flows at a high rate. In addition, temperature is measured at three positions within the cell. Such a cell was used to study various errors in the isoperibolic method, including the effect of stirring, and was used to detect excess power from several samples of palladium. This is one of 9 calorimeters made and studied by the author.

cold fusion three

This is an example of a dual-type calorimeter which combins the flow-type and the isoperibolic-type methods. The cell is surrounded by a jacket through which water flows at a known rate. Temperatures are measured at the inlet and exit of the jacket as well as at three positions within the electrolyte. The temperature change of the flowing water and the average temperature difference between the jacket and the electrolyte are used to determine the amount of heat being generated within the cell. Both methods can be calibrated using an internal heater or by using electrolysis of a dead cathode. The entire cell and jacket are contained within a vacuum jacket and the assembly is placed within a box kept at ±0.02° C.

Ultrasensitive calorimeter

This photo shows the most recent and accurate dual-type calorimeter. The cell is surrounded by a jacket through which water flows at a constant, known rate. This assembly is placed within a vacuum dewar, thereby allowing any heat leaving through the lid to be captured by the flowing water. As a result 98% of the heat is captured. The dewar is placed within a box held at ±0.02°C to provide additional stability. Reproducibility of ±50 mW is obtained. Stirring is used to reduce any temperature gradients within the cell. The open-circuit voltage can be measured either at a small spot using a Luggin capillary or an average value for the entire cathode can be obtained. Temperature is measured at two levels within the electrolyte and at the cathode. A recombiner is located within the cell so that no gas leaves the system except the orphaned oxygen.

Closeup of ultrasensitive calorimeter

Shown is a more detailed view of the new calorimeter. Normally the vacuum dewar is raised and covered by an insulated lid. A box containing the thermistor reference resistors is on the left. Resistors for measuring current through the cell are on the right. Behind the Dewar is a box containing cooling coils, a heater, and a fan which are used to maintain a constant temperature within the enclosure.

Internal structure of ultrasensitive

This is an example of a typical interior structure. The anode is a Pt mesh which is formed to be equal distant from a 1 cm by 2 cm plate cathode. The heater is shown on edge on the left. This consists of Pt wire wrapped on a Pyrex frame. Such a design allows all of the generated energy to enter the solution and also permits the exposed Pt to be used as a crude reference electrode for OCV measurements. The hypodermic syringes are used to fill the Luggin capillaries and the Pt reference electrodes (shown at the top) with electrolyte. The black material located above the Teflon barrier and just below the lid is the recombiner.