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Light Speed versus Special Relativity 

 Portuguese Translation    by Artur Weber                Danish  by Einar Solbakken
PDF Version    by General Science Journal


IoRetreat         jupiter2.gif (179632 bytes)         IoEcipChange4.gif (6985 bytes)
Click on thumbnail image to obtain full size chart.  Photo: Jupiter, Io left, Europa. via NASA/JPL

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ABSTRACT            Public Domain information:   In order to promote the widest possible distribution of this Light Speed versus Special Relativity article, the content authored by Stanley Byers is granted to be in the public domain. 
This paper reviews the available speed of light (c) measurements of 1994 AD that demonstrate speed variations of  inter-planetary light as measured relative to the motion of:... planets, satellites, the solar system, and the Milky Way galaxy.  
The idea that light from a remote source maintains a constant speed (c) relative to all observers regardless of their differing speeds and directions, as proposed by the theory of  Special Relativity, is shown to be incompatible with the characteristics of light's speed demonstrated by the 1994 AD data, analysis and charts of  Io's eclipse timing.  
The one single fact that demonstrates that light speed is not constant to all observers is the "1003 second delay" in Io's eclipse timing,... as discovered by Danish Scientist Roemer 1676 AD. 

The given facts in this analysis are:

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Abstract,    Cont.

Conclusion:...This relative velocity between the retreating Earth and the Jupiter / Io light train is not constant at  300,000 km/sec, and therefore,...light does not maintain a constant speed (c), relative to all observers,... as postulated by Albert Einstein.  

The remainder of this paper presents extensive detailed data and graphs supporting this conclusion, but it can be seen that Roemer's 1003 second delay in Io's eclipse event timing is the single data point that clearly demonstrates that it is not possible for the light speed in the intervening space to be constant at (c) in relation to the retreating Earth,... but of course it remains constant at (c) in relation to Jupiter. 

Roemer, many other astronomers and NASA have established that the eclipse period of Io in relation to the Sun line to Jupiter is 152,915.9 seconds. The important point concerning this period is the fact that it does not vary. 
If the Earth could linger at the near point to Jupiter, it could be observed that Io's timing in crossing the Sun line to Jupiter does not vary over the years.  It would make a very accurate clock for Sun dwellers.

When the Earth starts it's orbit and is leaving the near point,... if the speed of light remained constant relative to the Earth, then:

If the mechanics of the phrase,... if the speed of light remained constant relative to the Earth, then the observed timing of Io's period would not change ],... is not completely clear, the reader will not be able to understand the main argument of this Light Speed versus Special Relative paper. 

A second concept which is also critical to understanding the argument is,...you cannot separate the speed and timing of the eclipse event image from the speed of the light. 

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Accuracy in measuring the eclipse timing and accuracy in the graphs demonstrating the changes of the eclipse period timing is not critical nor required to validate this argument. The single elementary fact that Roemer's 1003 second delay exists,... makes the second postulate of Special Relativity impossible. Without the second postulate of Special Relativity there is no known foundation or justification for the continued existence and / or advocacy of the Special Relativity and General Relativity Gravitational theories, and their publicly supported educational programs and investigative projects.

This paper is an extension of the work available on the web page "Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Force". A review of the section titled "The Variable Speed of Light"  may aid in perusing this article.    

Papers by others with data demonstrating the falsification of Special Relativity are found at the following links:    

Prof. Dingle shows time dilation of SRT to be untenable. 1971 AD
http://blog.hasslberger.com/Dingle_SCIENCE_at_the_Crossroads.pdf .

 G. Wallace,  radar data gives light speed as c + v.  1969 AD
http://www.ekkehard-friebe.de/wallace.htm 

Nasa JPL,  Correcting for data Doppler shift with motion. 2004 AD
http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/oct04/4339              ***

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Light's Variable Speed Relative to Observers in Motion 

In our experience with the speed of sound in air including the Doppler effect, we have found that the speed of sound through the air is independent of the relative speed between source and receiver. The speed of sound is constant only in relation to the homogenous medium, through which it is traveling. Sound  travels as a longitudinal resonance wave within the physical properties of its medium.  

Circa 1676 Olaf Roemer's Io eclipse timing measurements demonstrated that the speed of light is not infinite. Prior to this discovery it was a popular belief that light's speed was infinite. Using the eclipse period timing of Jupiter's moon Io, Roemer found that light took approximately 1000 seconds to cross the 300 million kilometer diameter of the earth's orbit, indicating a speed of about 300,000 km/sec. Thereafter it was assumed that interplanetary light traveled at (c) through a medium of infinitesimal material particles. This all pervading medium was called the Aether (ether). The speed of light was assumed to be constant in relation to this material Aether of space, in the same manner that the speed of sound is constant relative to its medium. This material Aether was visualized as pervading all planets, objects and space in its entirety . Therefore it was assumed that due to the orbital speed of the Earth, that light from space would show a measurable change in speed depending on the direction of the Earth's motion through this presumed stationary material "Aether". It also seemed reasonable that the light speed perpendicular to the direction of the Earth's motion would always remain at c, ( 300,000 km/sec ).  

In ~1887 Michelson and Morley performed a famous experiment where they compared the speed of local light in the direction of Earth's velocity to the  speed of light transverse to the Earth's motion. They found that the motion of the Earth had no effect on the velocity of local light,... relative to the Earth and within its cloak of atmosphere and secondary radiation. The surprising results of this local experiment were widely and erroneously extrapolated to a belief that all of  light, including light from non local sources in space, also traveled at the constant c,... "relative to the observing location". In parallel with this development the theory of Special Relativity was published circa 1905, with main tenets that included the concept that not only local light, but that all of light in space,... traveled at c,... " in relation to the observer",... regardless of the observers velocity in relation to the source.     ***

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Special Relativity Advocates

The following list of Special Relativity Theory advocates is presented to demonstrate how extensively the acceptance of the theory has propagated through the physical science community. 

 **  National Academy of Science    The following quotes are from the book GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS by the Committee on Gravitational Physics of the National Research Council and the National Academy of Science. It is clearly evident by this book that the Committee on Gravitational Physics is a strong advocate of Special and General Relativity and is advising that our government should continue funding research in support of Einstein's theory of relativity. Unfortunately the committee did not publish a list of their dissenters and their opinions for this study.

Selected Quotes:

 Quote 1   The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in science and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. 

GRAVITATIONAL PHYSICS    Exploring the Structure of Space and Time
Committee on Gravitational Physics

Board on Physics and Astronomy 
Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications
National Research Council

Quote 2    National Academy of Science    The committee's work was supported by grants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Energy.

NOTICE:  The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose m