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Abstract:   This paper reviews the basic elements of remote force interactions that occur between prime radiation and matter. With this model, momentum is created during the interaction, without the prior existence of momentum in the radiation. This theoretical physics review is conducted from the viewpoint of a radiation and shadowing model of forces. One of the major goals of this paper is to explore the differences between, the physical force due to prime radiation, and the force due to momentum exchange between mass bodies.
Remote forces interactions, such as gravity and inertia exist through the interference interactions between the waves of the unbalanced prime radiation and the standing wave interference structures, which constitute the matter.
Matter is modeled as a point of harmonic convergence of linear isotropic radiation. The sink, source and harmonic frequency mixing attributes of matter's nucleons and atoms are the processes responsible for the external interference interaction forces. This wave model of particulate matter is described in more detail in the paper "Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Forces". The paper with its Section, "Wave Model of Matter", is available at the URL http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11. Familiarization with the model may aid in understanding the arguments of this paper.

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The term mass, in this model, represents the number of nucleons (n) in an object and the average degree of shielding (S) that occurs for that number of nucleons.

M = Mass,      M = S x n      and

F = M x A   or    F = ( S x n ) x A

For single atom objects, the number of nucleons (n) is the same as the familiar Mass Number (N) for that element in the periodic table. Therefore, in this model the standard basic terms for dimensional analysis, Mass, Length, and Time, [ M, L, & T ], are modified to replace Mass (M), with Shadowing (S),  and nucleon count (n),...[ S, n, L, & T ] or [ (S x n), L, & T ]

Plank's quantum energy steps and packets are here defined as the gain or loss of one harmonic frequency, from the population of converged harmonics that constitute the particle. Therefore, the energy steps of the popular standard model, that have been viewed as due to exchanges and storage of Plank's quantum energy packets, are here seen as step changes of the harmonic content of the particle.

In this model, there are no Plank size packets of energy (quanta), stored in the nucleus, waiting to be converted, via chain reaction or decay, to forms of tangible energy. The instantaneous source of the manifested, reflected and radioactive energy is the prime linear radiant frequency plenum of space.

Note:  This new (2002 AD) section of the web site originated as a stand alone paper, without having the prior works "Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Force" as a prerequisite.  Consequently, when it is perused in combination with the prior works the reader will notice some repetition. Some of the old content will also contain internal changes. Eventually;... the new content in this current paper will be merged into the various sections of the original Radiant Pressure paper.

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In order to facilitate posting this material on the internet, e-mail and news group systems, the Greek symbols for math expressions have been avoided. All vector expressions for force, e.g. Gravitational force, G,  will be in bold face type. All symbols for prime scalar field radiation will consist of a capital letter with a following sub letter designating the sub spectrum, e.g.: The symbol for the isotropic scalar field of the gravitational sub spectrum of the Prime radiation is, Pg  . The symbol used for the total spectrum of isotropic Prime radiation frequencies is, Pf . The symbol used for the electrostatic sub spectrum is Pe, pronounced as, P sub e. This can also be viewed as the Potential for the electrostatic system, (Pe), and the Potential for the gravitational system, (Pg).
In vector math notation the isotropic radiation would be termed the scalar potential field for the respective force system. Local gradients resulting from sinking or sourcing constitute the force fields for the systems: i.e. Gravitational force and Electrostatic force.

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### Model Features

Model features, applicable to this paper, follow:

• This primordial radiation is designated Prime radiation, (Pf), in this model.
• All matter exists as standing interference patterns or deformations in the Prime radiant frequencies of space.
• Inverse distance squared formulas remain unchanged for all remote forces.
• Inverse distance squared is applicable for shadow area and shadow density.
• Gravitational shadowing shows a pressure limit and topical variations.
• Gravity shows total shielding on large planets only.
• Prime radiation manifests an Inertial/Gravitational  and Electrostatic spectrum.
• The Gravitational and Electrostatic force fields manifest speeds beyond our current ability to measure.
• Nuclear "mass" shielding occurs for all nuclei except hydrogen.
• Nuclear shielding replaces the mass to energy conversion theory,  E =  MC^2 .
• Electrons and ions interact with the E force spectrum and the Inertial force spectrum.
• Inertia is due to the Doppler effect and the quantum characteristic of photons.
• Molar heat capacity, Avogadro's hypothesis and Superconduction support this heat shell model of heat.
• Quantum steps in energy result from the gain or loss of integral harmonic content.
• Prime radiation creates force and momentum locally.
• EM radiation only appears to transport energy by causing the manifestation of Prime potential energy at remote locations.
• The electrostatic field radiation (Pe) is the carrier ( medium ) for all Electromagnetic radiation spectra.
• Electricity may demonstrate an absolute zero potential (+), similar to the heat system.
• Current flow in a conductor involves the continuous virtual creation and annihilation of charge by dividing neutral charges (ionization).
• Magnetic lines are solenoidal vortices in E force fields created by the process of separating electrons from neutral atoms.
• Magnetic lines are an unstable form of matter created as a sink within the E force field spectrum.
• Magnetic B groups (E curl), when associated with EM radiation are a continuous process of creation and decay of localized energy (matter).

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### Web Pages for the original paper " Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Forces":

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The following two analogies, Newton's and William Thompson's, provide evidence that at least three scientists from the past, Newton, Maxwell and Thompson, have advocated a radiation and shadowing concept for the cause or modeling of remote force.

### Newton's Ethereal Flow Analogy

Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion, circa 1600's, gave the description of how the force of gravity varied with distance, following the inverse distance squared equation. He did not propose a cause for gravity or inertia in any of his publications. Although, the following quote, from a private letter to Robert Boyle, shows Newton did conceive of a cause for gravity that is essentially a blueprint for a radiation and shadowing model of remote forces. If Newton's term "ethereal spirit" is replaced with the term "prime radiation" in the following quote, the similarity of the concepts becomes obvious.

Quote:   "so may the gravitating attraction of the Earth be caused by the continual condensation of some other such like ethereal spirit [prime radiation]. . . in such a way . . . as to cause it [prime radiation] from above to descend with great celerity [speed] for (from) a supply; in which descent it may bear down with it the bodies it pervades, with force proportional to the superficies [surfaces] of all their parts it acts upon."..Unquote

The terms in brackets have been added to the original to aid in the comparison. In other writings Sir Newton referred to the [ prime radiation] as "Electric spirit" and "Luminiferous Aether" . It is satisfying and important to note that Newton's concept of the late 1600's, as stated above, does not propose an Aether consisting of a particulate material. The infamous, discredited particulate Aether concept, proposed by Le Sage and others, became popular in the mid 1800's. If one is tempted to criticize Sir Newton's use of the term "ethereal spirit", it must be remembered that he made the statement two hundred years before Faraday and Maxwell produced the terms,  electromagnetic field and EM radiation.

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The next quote from The Principia seems to be referring to Newton's above "suchlike ethereal spirit"  concept, as it would be applied to all forces that act through a distance, therefore not restricting the radiation and shadowing concept to gravity alone.

Quote  Then from these forces, by other propositions which are not mathematical, I deduce the motion of the planets, the comets, the moon and the sea. I wish we could derive the rest of the phenomena of Nature by the same kind of reasoning from mechanical principles, for I am induced by many reasons to suspect that they may all depend upon certain forces by which the particles of bodies, by some causes hitherto unknown, are either mutually impelled toward one another and cohere in regular figures, or are repelled and recede from one another. These forces being unknown, philosophers have hitherto attempted the search of Nature in vain; but I hope the principles here laid down will afford some light either to this or some truer method of philosophy.    ......Unquote

The following statements found in Newton's publication Principia Mathematica does not mention his above concept when he is discussing a cause for gravity.

Quote  "I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from the phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses....it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies".      .....Unquote

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A letter by Sir Newton also expresses his firm opinion opposing the concept that gravity acted through empty space as an "inherent property of matter and vacuum  space".

Quote:  ."...that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that , I believe no man, who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking, could ever fall into it.
Gravity must be caused by an agent acting constantly according to certain laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial (prime radiation) I have left to the consideration of my reader."....Unquote.         Bold face and terms in brackets are by current author.

How is the "modern" GR contention that... "matter inherently warps spacetime and warped spacetime inherently causes gravity" any different than the "ancient" concept of,... "gravity acting through empty space is an inherent property of matter",... which Newton's above quote treats with contempt.??

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### Heat Flow Analogy

This next important analogy was first revealed in 1841 by William Thompson (1824-1907) at the age of seventeen....Quote.

"The Electric (force) Field E, in an infinite non-conducting medium (free space), is analogous to the flow of heat in an infinite conductor"......Unquote

This following quote from Norman Feather’s works "Electricity and Matter", provides James Clerk Maxwell’s opinion of the importance of this above analogy.

Quote  "By this paper, as Maxwell (1831-1879) later insisted, a youngster (W. Thompson) of seventeen (1841) had made a contribution to our understanding of the nature of electrical action, comparable with the massive contribution of Faraday (1791-1867), who was fifty one years old at the time and was the doyen (dean or senior member) of electrical scientists in Britain."  .....Unquote

This information is presented here to emphasize the importance of this heat flow analogy and to show how it also relates to all remote force shadowing systems. With James Maxwell equating the importance of Thompson's analogy to the importance of all of the contributions of Faraday, it is hard to imagine a more valuable accolade for this single contribution to physical science. Later in his life, William Thompson (1824-1907) became known as First Baron Kelvin. Maxwell published his famous fundamental "Maxwell's equations" of electromagnetism circa 1864.

This radiation and shadowing model of forces can also be math modeled with the same form of vector equations that are used to describe heat flow in a 3D solid. Thompson’s heat flow analogy is applicable to the flow of the Gravitational (sub spectra) force field vector G. The Earth can be viewed as sinking the flow of frequencies of the gravitational potential energy in the same manner that a cold region can be viewed as sinking the frequencies of heat flow in a large block of hot iron.

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Since the planets sink the spectra for gravity and inertia, the planets and moons must appear as a source for spectra of other frequencies, or spectra with other characteristics such as temporal and spatial non-coherence. Consequently, this secondary diverging spectra would have a higher intensity in the neighborhood of planetary bodies than that which occurs in the ambient of free space. This cloak of secondary diverging radiation provides an "Aether" that moves with the Earth but does not rotate with the Earth. This reflected cloak remains rotationally stationary with sidereal space which is its source. When the speed of the light from Jupiter's moon Io enters this cloak it assumes the speed of c in relation to this divergent cloak. When this light is in free space between the Earth and Jupiter it's speed is c in relation to the isotropic prime radiation of Jupiter's inertial space. If the Jupiter/ Io light wave train did not travel at c in Jupiter's space it could not display a 37 second timing difference in the eclipses and Olaf Roemer could not have calculated the speed of light via the integrated eclipse timing.  This maximum difference is seen when one subtracts the shortened eclipse period measured during Earth's approach to Jupiter from the elongated period measured during the retreating phase. This timing difference is proportional to the maximum speed difference between the approaching and retreating speed.

This cloak of divergent prime radiation traveling with the Earth may be the very reason that the interferometer experiments of Michelson-Morley and Miller could not detect a reference frame (Aether) which is stationary in relation to sidereal space (Inertial space). This cloak of secondary divergent prime radiation may be compared in some small respects to the concept of inertial frame dragging proposed in other theories. In reviewing the light path from Jupiter/Io eclipse events it is apparent that the light travels through three separate and different radiation environments (Aethers_?)

1. Jupiter's divergent cloak of secondary Prime radiation.
2. The ambient Prime radiation of our solar system disk.
3. The Earth's divergent cloak of secondary Prime radiation.

If the speed of Io's light beam is measured within and in reference to Earths ambient cloak and atmosphere it would no doubt measure the 186 K miles per sec. c in relation to the Earth. The same light beam exhibits the same speed c, when measured in reference to the solar system's interplanetary space.  With this model's concept of light existing as a resonance in the ambient background of Prime radiation, the above measurement results are precisely as expected. ***

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### Heat Flow Analogy  cont.

As the original heat analogy is applied to the flow of the Electric force field vector E, the positive charge in free space is viewed as sinking the flow of the isotropic electrical potential force (Pe), in the same manner that a cold region is viewed as sinking the heat flow in iron.

The ambient electrostatic spectra (Pe) exists as a balanced sub-spectrum of the prime background radiation throughout all of space. In the neighborhood of negative charge with its E force field,  the emitted E spectra is more intense than in free space. This model requires that negative charge appear as a local source of E spectra radiation, in much the same manner that hot matter is a source of heat radiation. This analogy extends to comparing the repulsion of hot rocket chamber gas molecules from each other,... to the similar repulsion between negative charges. See the section,  Electrostatic , for related content.

Since the electron is a particle it sinks its signature spectra of Inertia, Gravity or the Strong force. This convergence flow allows the electrons to produce the divergent flow of E force spectra with above ambient intensity. Through the sink (shadowing)  function,...the weight and momentum of the electron is expected and accounted for.
It is noted that in this model, matter consists of interference, (sinking , mixing and sourcing) within the "non EM" frequencies of the prime radiation. This source and sink function of the electron identifies it as particulate matter, and distinguishes it from photons (radiating disturbances) which are a resonant  transformation process between the state of matter and prime radiation. The electron, like all matter, exists as an interference form within its total existence sub spectrum, and is not restricted to an existence as a confluence only in the electrostatic field spectra, Pe.

This E force field surrounding the charge is a region of unbalanced divergent radiant flow. This unbalanced E spectra flow is the electric force field. The so called "remote" force is created by the "local" static unbalanced flow of radiation inherent within a region near a divergent source or sink, or a region of shadowed space.

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Free space without charge is a region of balanced E spectra flow, and of course balanced prime flow. This isotropic (opposing and balanced) flow of the ambient background radiation (Pe) is the medium for transporting EM radiation such as radio waves,... with the associated dynamic E and B force fields. No static forces are manifested in regions of balanced flow. Balanced flow is a potential force field (scalar) and unbalanced flow is a force field (vector) and a potential energy field. Without shadowing, as in free space, all radiation flow is isotropic and static force fields do not exist, only potential force is present. The intensity of isotropic prime background radiation of space is analogous to the scalar field of temperature,  as in Thompson's infinite heat conductor analogy and/or the scalar field of star light intensity in free space.

With the above analogy in mind, it is apparent that the vector fields of gravitational force and electrostatic force arise as unbalanced flow with gradients, within the shadowed field of their particular prime subspectra.

This prime sub spectrum radiation, Pe,  which is the medium for the E force field, cannot be EM radiation for the following reasons:

• Our familiar EM radiation is an alternating unbalance [disturbance feature or resonance] of the Prime electrostatic (Pe) radiation.
• Therefore, the E field flow cannot consist of EM radiation,...since the E force field radiation is the medium necessary for the creation and propagation of EM radiation.
• A second major difference is the fact that EM radiation propagates as an alternating unbalance in the Prime radiation,... and the static force fields, E, exist as a steady state unbalance in the Prime radiation.
• EM radiation causes the remote manifestation of local energy and the Prime radiation and its sub spectra do not.
• All Prime radiation spectra are local potential force and energy in regions of unbalanced flow (gradient).

In order to aid the comparison of this radiation and shadowing model of physics to the contemporary standard physical model, a good treatment of the standard theoretical physics model is available from Britannica's web site, listed under;  Philosophy of Nature. First time users of the Britannica web site may be allowed 14  free days to access all of the above referenced information at the Britannica site.     ***

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Prime isotropic, non-EM, non-particulate, radiation exists via an unknown non-material medium and unknown source and does not originate from matter. This Prime Radiation is the foundation of this radiation and shadowing concept. The cause and origination of these Prime radiant frequencies (Pf) are not proposed in this paper. In these discussions this non-EM radiation is viewed as ontological or God given. It is the only logical "given" in this model, and there is abundant hard data demonstrating its existence. Examples demonstrating the reality and features of the prime radiation are provided throughout this paper.

Tesla, the father of our world wide electrical energy distribution systems, provides his view on the existence of cosmic background energy by his statement circa 1937.

Quote:     "There is no energy in matter other than that received from the environment. On my 79th birthday I made a brief reference to it, but its meaning and significance have become clearer to me since then. It applies rigorously to molecules and atoms as well as the largest heavenly bodies, and to all matter in the universe in any phase of its existence, from its very formation to its ultimate disintegration."  Unquote.

This above quote of Tesla's may still be found at the site URL http://www.tesla.hu/tesla/articles/19370710.doc

The existence of the familiar known Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum as an isotropic phenomenon in all of free space is well accepted. The existence of the EM sea of starlight and the EM microwave background radiation, with simultaneous flows in opposing directions, provide analogs of the prime non-EM radiant system. The phenomenon of radiation flowing in opposing directions, along the same path, at the same instant in time, is very counter intuitive; but there exists the empirical example of starlight demonstrating the reality of opposing flows. The standing waves on antennas are also an example of opposing flows.

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The features and phenomena caused by prime radiation, such as gravity, electrostatics, and magnetism have in the past been blithely attributed to "inherent force fields" without requiring a cause. This has been a major hindrance in having the prime radiation's (Pf) existence recognized by the public, students and the physical science community.
Whereas, the features and phenomena caused by the familiar EM radiation, such as light, radio, energy and radar, are readily recognized as being caused by radiation and shadowing. When schools teach that the causes of all remote forces are an "inherent property of matter" ,... this severely reduces the student's curiosity that is needed to mount a search for an actual cause.

In order to fully understand this model, it is required to distinguish the difference between the:

• Prime radiation (Pf),...E field subspectra (Pe),...Electromagnetic spectrum (EM).
• and between:  Potential force,... Potential Energy,... and Energy

The isotropic scalar electrostatic radiation (Pe) is a sub-spectrum of the prime radiant system. The unbalanced flow fields (gradient) of this radiation is normally designated with an E as a vector in physics. This (E) force field vector is a gradient within the scalar Pe sub spectrum. In this model, the Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum exists as a resonance in the Pe (scalar) sub spectrum.
Some readers mistakenly view the prime radiation (Pf) as high frequency electromagnetic radiant energy (EM). The unbalanced flow of prime radiation provides local potential force; whereas the unbalanced flow of EM radiation "appears" to transports energy.
EM radiation only causes the manifestation of Prime energy at remote locations via resonance in the Prime radiation. This gives the "appearance" of energy transport.  There is no requirement in this model for EM radiation to transport energy;... there is an infinite source of energy available at every point in the Universe.

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In summary, the Prime force radiation (Pf) is the parent of the scalar electrostatic (Pe) field radiation, and the Pe field is the parent of the E force field and of Electromagnetic (EM) radiation. The isotropic Prime radiation is the parent of Potential force, and the Potential force fields are in turn the parent of Energy. Of course, the Prime radiation is also the parent of the vector force field sub spectrums for gravity (G), inertia (I), magnetism (B) and the nuclear strong force.

In the vector math the prime radiation intensity would be called a scalar potential force field, Pf.  The gravitational spectrum, Pg, is a sub spectrum of the prime spectrum, and Pg is the scalar potential field for the G vector force field. The vector equation:

Prime radiation (Pf) and its sub spectra can not exhibit nor transport mass or momentum as modeled in the particulate ether theory of the 1700's, as they are momentum's first cause. The comparison of the momentum created by radiation's interaction with matter; and the momentum arising from the transfer of momentum between objects is one of the major issues for this paper.

Prime radiation exhibits self-interference of the constructive and destructive nature. The existence of all modes of polarization appears necessary to insure selective self-interference. The mechanics of opposing isotropic radiation suggests that the interference interaction of opposing flows is the cause for the radiation modulation groups called photons. As noted previously the word "photon" is here used as a generic term for a coherent wave packet for all types of radiation. It is hoped that this use does not cause undue confusion with it's normal  use which is limited to the visual spectrum.

Prime radiation, as a carrier with the highest phase velocity, provides the Fourier harmonic side bands and sub-spectra necessary for the creation of wave groups,  i.e. ... Electromagnetic radiation; ...zero point energy,... vacuum energy,... gamma rays,... x-rays,... and light. A fair analog of the above model is amplitude modulated radio transmission. In AM radio, the audio signal modulates the radio frequency carrier and becomes a feature of the carrier and its side bands which result from the mixing of two frequencies.

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### The Variable Speed of Light

There are no obvious restraints limiting the prime radiation to the speed of light. A light photon is a wave group traveling at the speed of light, but that does not limit the phase speed of the constituent prime radiation making up the group. Since the speed of the prime radiation is different then that of light, comparable wavelengths in the prime and EM domains would not have the same frequencies. Investigators in this field must avoid using  c, the speed of light, for wavelength computations and discussions concerning these prime frequencies.

When a prism divides light into a rainbow of colors it demonstrates that different frequencies travel at different speeds in the same medium. When light is refracted as it inters water it demonstrates that the same frequency travels at different speeds in different mediums.  An indication that the gravitational sub spectrum travels many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of light is available at:

The Speed of Gravity;  by Tom Van Flandern

Quotes from Dr. Van Flanders's valuable and interesting works follow:

Quote  "Recognition of a faster-than-light speed propagation of gravity, as indicated by all existing experimental evidence, may be the key to taking conventional physics to the next plateau." .......

Quote
Standard experimental techniques exist to determine the propagation speed of forces. When we apply these techniques to gravity, they all yield propagation speeds too great to measure, substantially faster than lightspeed. This is because gravity, in contrast to light, has no detectable aberration or propagation delay for its action, even for cases (such as binary pulsars) where sources of gravity accelerate significantly during the light time from source to target. By contrast, the finite propagation speed of light causes radiation pressure forces to have a non-radial component causing orbits to decay (the "Poynting-Robertson effect"); but gravity has no counterpart force proportional to v / c to first order....

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Quote  Expressed less technically by Sir Arthur Eddington, this means: "If the Sun attracts Jupiter towards its present position S, and Jupiter attracts the Sun towards its present position J, the two forces are in the same line and balance. But if the Sun attracts Jupiter toward its previous position S', and Jupiter attracts the Sun towards its previous position J', when the force of attraction started out to cross the gulf, then the two forces give a couple. This couple will tend to increase the angular momentum of the system, and, acting cumulatively, will soon cause an appreciable change of period, disagreeing with observations if the speed is at all comparable with that of light." (Eddington, 1920, p.94) See Figure 1.

Quote  As viewed from the Earth's frame, light from the Sun has aberration. Light requires about 8.3 minutes to arrive from the Sun, during which time the Sun seems to move through an angle of 20 arc seconds. The arriving sunlight shows us where the Sun was 8.3 minutes ago. The true, instantaneous position of the Sun is about 20 arcs seconds east of its visible position, and we will see the Sun in its true present position about 8.3 minutes into the future. In the same way, star positions are displaced from their average position by up to 20 arcs seconds, depending on the relative direction of the Earth's motion around the Sun. This well-known phenomenon is classical aberration, and was discovered by the astronomer Bradley in 1728.   Unquote

End of quotes from Dr. Van Flanders's works.

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It seems possible that our SOHO satellite should be able to provide a method of comparing interplanetary light speed with the speed of gravity. The SOHO satellite is not immersed in the magnetic field,...radiation,...electron and particulate space smog mixture diverging from and surrounding the Earth and Moon, therefore SOHO may give a different value for the speed of light and other radiations emerging from Solar eruptions. Comparing Solar event timing between SOHO and Earth bound measurements may refine our obscured and limited knowledge of free space light speed. If future experiments confirm Kraspedon's data (circa 1950) and the near infinite light speed for free space,... how will this effect Astronomy's current concepts of the interstellar distances, expansion speeds and redshifts,...E = MC^2, and the theories of relativity??

It is recognized that laser and radar tests within the Earth Moon system,  and radar and radio tests within our planetary space indicate the normal speed of 186 K miles per second for these tests. As noted above these uses and tests do not provide a true measurement of light speed in inter-planetary space.

If the speed of gravity is many times faster than the speed of light, the actual Lagrangian position (L1) of the SOHO satellite in relation to the apparent position of the Sun should show some aberration. The line of sight to the Sun and the line of gravitational force to the Sun will only coincide if the phenomena propagate at the same speed. If gravity is much faster than light,.. there may exist a measurable angular difference between the radio path to SOHO and the line of site to the Sun.

Coulomb force speed research:   There is currently a group of researchers reviewing available data for the speed of propagation for the coulomb force (vector force).  Wolfgang G. Gasser of Liechtenstein / Europe ( z@z.lol.li )  provides a link to versions of some of his open work on this coulomb force speed research:
English:   http://members.lol.li/twostone/E/physics1.html
German: Physik in der Sackgasse - Versuch eines Neubeginns  (Dezember 87):    http://members.lol.li/twostone/index2.html
http://members.lol.li/twostone/relationality.html

He is also interested to know if someone is able to repeat the rather simple experiments of Hertz, which resulted in strong evidence for instantaneous "propagation" of the electrostatic force, E.

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The minimum necessary characteristics of this prime radiation are:

• It must be the prime radiant medium for our domain of matter and radiation.
• Exhibits an infinite frequency spectrum.
• Exists universally in all space and matter.
• Universally isotropic through all points in free space.
• Remains isotropic for all material reference frames.
• Exhibits self-interference, coherency with distance and polarization.
• Radiates as photons, i.e.: modulated wave groups.
• Propagates at least at the speed of light.
• Forms stable and unstable interference patterns.
• Does not originate from matter.
• Does not have mass, inertia or momentum.
• Does not propagate energy; yet is a medium for EM propagation.
• Provides a system for the creation of basic particles, therefore it cannot consist of particles.
• Is the scalar potential for all force fields.
• Provides a logical system causing and transmitting all remote forces of attraction, repulsion, gravity, inertia, electrostatic, magnetic, and nuclear.
• As the cause of gravity it cannot have gravitational mass or respond to gravity.
• As the cause of inertia, it cannot have inertial mass or exhibit inertia and momentum.
• The isotropic scalar Electrostatic (Pe) spectrum is a sub spectrum of the Prime radiation.
• The Pe spectrum is the medium for the existence and propagation of  light and all of the EM spectrum of radiant energy: i.e.,.. heat, light, radio and the total electromagnetic spectrum.
• If an absolute void space could exist without containing prime radiation, light could not exist nor propagate through such a space.
• Since the Prime radiation is the cause of electrostatic potential and force it cannot consist of charge or respond to electrostatic force.
• As the cause of magnetic force it cannot respond to magnetism, yet magnetic flux is modeled as a solenoidal feature of the E force field spectrum.
• Constitutes an infinite plenum for all forms of kinetic and potential and radiant  energy, i.e.: gravitational, momentum, radiant, inductive, charge, chemical, and radioactive.
• Provides an infinite sink for all radiation manifested by matter.   ***

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It is generally accepted that all remote force empirical measurements follow the inverse distance squared equation. If our empirical remote force measurement data contained any exponential factor, other than the exact inverse distance squared factor, the forces would not be due to shadowing, nor be related to a radiant system. If gravity were due to some other system such as space-time, warped space, inertia via shrinking space, geometry, mass attraction, expanding matter or the inherent property of mass,... the equation would not be restricted to the precise inverse squared formula of a radiation shadowing system. Other non-shadowing systems could exhibit equations of proportionality such as:... inverse distance, inverse distance cubed or a multitude of other fractional ratios.

With every "remote" force clearly and exactly demonstrating the inverse distance squared shadowing feature, how is it possible to not recognize the existence of the radiant medium? Not one of our inverse distance squared shadowing phenomena could exist without radiation. Shadows cannot exist without light. In a closed system without radiation, shadows and darkness are unknown and the words have no meaning.

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Physical functions and properties, demonstrating prime radiation’s "unbalanced" (shadowed) flow fields interacting with matter, have appeared in other papers under the names:

• Mass,...Mass Deficit,...Mass Defect,...Mass Increase via Speed,...Rest Mass,.. Mass Attraction,...Inherent property of Matter,.. Gravitational Potential Field,.. External Energy Source,.. Electrostatic Potential,.. Voltage.
• Magnetic Attraction and Repulsion,.. Magnetic Potential,.. Magnetic Flux,.. Radiation Reaction Force,.. Compton Effect,.. Casimir Force.
• Implicate Order,.. Enfolded Order,.. Hidden Variables,.. Holographic Universe.
• Cosmological Constant,.. Mach’s Principle,.. Inertial Space,.. Reference Frame,.. Frame Dragging,.. Warped Space,.. Space Warped by Mass,... Shrinking Space,.. Space Time,.. Space-time Metric,.. Mass to Energy Conversion,.. Binding Energy,.. Zero Rest Mass Particles,.. Radioactive Radiation Energy.
• Quantum Potential,.. Quantum Field,.. Quantum Foam,.. Quantum Wave,.. Zero Point Energy,.. Vacuum Radiation,... The Vacuum,.. Vacuum Energy,.. Vacuum Fluctuations,.. Creative Vacuum,... Space Oscillators,.. Virtual Photons,.. Virtual Particles,.. Virtual Energy,.. Negative Energy,.. Neutrinos,.. Force Carriers,.. Non-Locality Events,.. Uncertainty Principal,.. Complementarity,.. Duality,... Comparison Fluid.
• Lines of Force,.. Magnetic Lines,.. Magnetic Flux,.. Lorentz Force,.. Force Fields,.. Gravitational Fields,.. Electrostatic Fields,.. Magnetic Fields,.. Latent Heat,.. Brownian Motion,.. Meson Force Fields,.. Strong Force Fields,.. Weak Force Fields,.. Higg's field,.. Van der Waals Force,.. Tensor Force.
• Fabric of Space,.. Strings,.. Aether,.. Ether,.. Dark Matter,.. Dark Radiation,.. Dark Energy,.. Sea of Energy,.. Cold Fusion Energy,..  Wheel Works of Nature.

These above listed terms are found in studies of remote forces by other authors. The contemporary standard model of physics does not provide any initiating cause for the above listed phenomena. This present concept of remote force via prime radiation and shadowing provides a parent cause for only the real phenomena.    ***

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### The Infinite Energy Cycle

The prime background radiation is shown as an infinite source of energy and the plenum to which all energy returns.

When a free space particle drifts into an area of gravitational influence, the unbalanced flow of prime radiation entrains the particle,... and relative kinetic energy as a change in velocity (dv),... is manifested in the particle, relative to the shadowing object.

Some readers may desire to view this as a transfer of energy from prime radiation to the particle, but it must be recognized that this new kinetic energy of the particle is also a mutual feature of the particle and the background radiation. The unbalanced flow of radiation (G) with its resultant force has caused the creation of relative momentum in the particle-radiation-planet system.  [see Inertia Revised Sec..]

When the particle falls and strikes the planet, the kinetic energy is converted to low grade heat. The heat is then radiated and conducted to the ambient environment and returns to the sink of radiant space to complete the cycle. There are obviously many other energy cycles returning energy to radiant space other than just heat, as demonstrated by the outpouring from the stars. A similar fate occurs to the radiant ingredients of unstable particles of matter when they decay. Their collection of ripples and eddies of radiation decay and disperse back to the sink of prime radiation.

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The question of what happens to the gravitational spectral radiation that is blocked by the mass of a planet is of interest. It has experienced some type of change that has created the shadow in the isotropic flow, but the form of the change in this secondary divergent radiation is not evident. The types of change seen possible in creating this secondary radiation are;... loss of coherency, frequency up shift transformations through mixing,...frequency dispersion into Fourier components, ...directional scattering,... and phase and polarization variations . It is quite obvious that the gravitational interaction function of the prime radiation does not result in heating the surface of a planet,... in the manner that heating would occur if the radiation were Electromagnetic.

A particle in free isotropic space does not fall (accelerate),... because the impinging radiation from above is balanced by the impinging radiation from below. The same particle when on the surface of a planet does not fall,... because the surface of the planet balances the impinging radiation force from above. In each case the particle has the same amount of radiation impinging from above. In the free space situation one does not expect the isotropic radiation to cause heating. Yet some scholars insist that on a planets surface the same value of radiation and force from above should cause heating that would soon evaporate the planet. It is agreed that,...if the radiation were Electromagnetic, evaporation of the planet would be expected.

Unbalanced Prime radiation fields exhibit force and cause the manifestation of relative motion and relative energy between two objects but conversion of the impinging prime radiation into heat and EM energy appears to only occur in radioactive elements. It appears that the preponderance of the total prime radiation spectrum which converges on a planet,... is up-shifted through mixing to higher harmonic frequencies with shorter wavelengths which then diverge from the planet and do not interact with matter to cause heat or force.

A second system model of force unbalance in a shadowed location (i.e.: near a planet) may occur due to a difference in coherency between impinging and divergent radiations of the same frequencies. It would be expected that any coherent radiation from outer space would exert greater force on an object than the opposing diffuse non-coherent radiation which is diverging from the planet. An example of the difference in effective energy between coherent and non-coherent EM radiation is evident when one compares the concentrated energy of laser beams to the energy of non-coherent light beams.  ***

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### Quantum Steps as Harmonic Steps

Quantum steps of energy consist of a gain or loss of one harmonic frequency from the existing harmonious confluence of frequencies that constitute the particle. An apparent step increase of radiant energy of a particle (object) occurs when a new harmonic wave train joins in to the harmonious interference pattern, which is the particle. In the same manner, the apparent decay of energy in a resonant particle is the loss of some phase or some group wave trains. This model requires no quantum particles (bundles of energy) that strike an object and are absorbed and stored.

The use of Plank's constant ( h ), to determine the size of the energy steps, remains applicable with this model. In order to join in to the existing confluence of radiation the impinging wave train must be a mathematical harmonic in tune with the existing frequencies. If frequencies of any random wavelength were allowed to join with the resonant spectral symphony of the particle, it is doubtful if any quantum steps would be evident. In order to join the symphony, the new wavelength has to be in integral harmony. i.e. : ....1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4....

When one reviews Plank's work, which results in the conclusion that energy E, only exists in quanta, it is obvious that the equation contains the continuous function, F (freq.),

E = h x F

It is apparent that an infinite selection of any size quanta will be available if all non integral frequencies are available. If this were true there would be no "quantum step" manifested. From the statistical work that produced this equation, it can be concluded that the frequency term F, must always be a function of the integral term N, an integer, [N = 1,2,3,....].  Therefore F becomes a function of a reference frequency, Fo, and N.

F = Fo x N

With the addition of N to the equation,  the quantum energy steps E = h x Fo x N , have integral step relations similar to those found with harmonic frequencies.

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When the equations of Balmer's, Lyman's et al, spectral series for Hydrogen are reviewed it is apparent that light and energy, as it is absorbed (shadowed), reflected or emitted from matter, only manifests as harmonics, and therefore the quantum steps become self evident. This also suggests that all of the frequencies constituting the confluence which is the particle, are all related as integral harmonics. This logic does not exclude the existence of frequencies which are not harmonically related to the frequencies of matter, it only suggests that significant energy interactions (quantum steps) only occur with related harmonics.

From the Balmer series, the frequencies of the spectrometer measurements are:

F = ( Rc / 4 ) - ( Rc / n^2 )              R = constant            =  speed of light

Using this term for frequency, Planks equation for a quantum of energy is given the integral steps necessary to define a stepwise quantum of energy.

E = h x F      or       E =  h x [ ( R x c / a^2 ) - ( R x c / n^2 ) ]

All frequencies in the following four spectral series for Hydrogen are seen to be related harmonically. This occurs where integral steps of (a) and (n) in the above equations, give different series and separate harmonics within a series, i.e.

• Lyman:    a = 1,    n = 2,3,4...,
• Balmer:    a = 2,    n = 3,4,5...,
• Paschen:  a = 3,   n = 4,5,6...,
• Brackett:  a = 4,    n = 5,6,7...,

With a minimum of algebraic comparisons, it is seen that all of the series are harmonically related.

The Lyman series contains:

• A fourth harmonic of every second line of the Balmer series.
• A ninth harmonics of every third line in the Paschen series.
• A sixteenth harmonic of every fourth line in the Brackett series.

That which appears as the addition of stored energy is only the addition of harmonic rays of other wavelengths to the vortex. The minute stepwise appearance of changes in energy called quanta are due to the loss or addition of one harmonic phase wave within the particles total radiant spectral flow.

Spectral lines and continuous spectra emissions are a result of the surrounding radiant sea adjusting to the loss or addition of one harmonic frequency to the vortex. Thus, the concept that jump changes, in the orbits of electron point particles, cause the spectral lines of the elements is not required in this model.

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The electrons emitted during beta decay are no different than a diverging spectra. The prime radiant background is being converted to the frequencies of the electron and this allows the decaying element to appear as a source. This is an indication that the electron shells are a standing wave phenomenon. Matter and energy have not been created nor destroyed; it is only a frequency conversion process.

This heat shell model of energy views an increase in temperature as an increase in the number of harmonic frequencies in the heat spectrum at that resonating point (particle). If the concentration is above ambient, the particle will lose harmonics as radiant heat. This appears as storage of energy by the particle, but the heat energy is actually being converted from the prime radiation flowing through the particle.

The heat frequency energy that appears to be absorbed is not stored as an independent bundle of EM energy in a particle. The interacting process that appears to be "absorption" is only frequency conversion and changing of the harmonic content of the interference patterns. An infinite source of potential energy is available at every point in space whether an atomic particle is there or not. With this radiation and shadowing concept there is no requirement to model a particle with an independent mysterious storage lock box for energy packets.   ***

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### Energy Upshift via Mixing

The existence of the plenum and the cycle of prime radiation removes the concern for the thermodynamic concept of an inevitable "Heat Death of the Universe". The heat death concept predicts that all organized energy (low entropy) will eventually decay to unavailable disorganized energy (high entropy) as low-grade heat. This concept is viewed by some scholars as a form of the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

Other popular models view the absence of excess star light energy as an indication that the Universe must be expanding and the expanding volume of space provides an expanding sink capacity for the heat death energy. This radiation and shadowing model's concept of energy frequency up-conversion does not require the Universe or space to expand or warp in order to provide a sink for the lost energy of Olbers' paradox.

It well known that two frequencies mix via superposition. This is directly related to the juxtaposition addition of force vectors in electrostatic force fields. The mixing process produces Fourier frequency content consisting of the sum, difference and the two original frequencies. The energy (e) content of radiation is also known to be directly proportional to its frequency (f), e = hf, where (h) is Planck’s constant. This indicates that as the low-grade heat and radiant energy manifested by matter, are entrained and mixed back into the plenum of prime radiation, a natural up shift of energy toward the higher frequencies occurs. Consequently, low-grade heat is a byproduct of utilizing high-grade energy, and high-grade energy is reproduced by the mixing and absorption of up shifted radiation returning to the plenum of prime background radiation. This prevents the possibility of a universal heat death through increased entropy, which is frequency downshift.

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The following simplified example of frequency mixing demonstrates the natural ultraviolet up-conversion of the process. Mixing two harmonic frequencies through superpositional interference is modeled here. The mixing process produces a sum frequency, a difference frequency and the two originals. It should be noted that multiplication of frequencies only occurs by cascading through multiple generations. Related cascading processes are fractal geometry and cellular automata. This simplified mathematical black body mixing example is modeled here with the following assumptions:

• The waste energy being added to the ambient [sink] is a single frequency at the red end of the visual spectrum, red, and is designated as (R).
• The harmonic frequency to be mixed with the red frequency is provided by the ambient in the infrared spectra and is equal to one half of the frequency of (R). It is designated (K). Therefore, R is the second harmonic of K,... R = 2K .
• The ambient is considered an infinite source of the infrared (K).
• The artificial waste heat source for (R) is constant with an intensity above ambient during the mixing process of returning energy to the ambient plenum.
• In the following chart of the cascading generations of frequencies, only the new frequencies [sources] will be added in each generation. No attempt will be made to chart the repeat occurrences for each generation's original frequencies since there are continuous sources for both original frequencies.
• The intensity/amplitude and phase of the succeeding generations will not be considered. Relative intensities of the frequencies are best judged by the form of the standard black body radiation curve. Only the existence or absence of frequencies are charted.

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 H A R M O N I C S 9 X 8 X 7 X 6 X 5 X X 4 X X 3 X X X 2 X X X X 1 X X X X Orig. 2 3 4 GENERATIONS

Frequency Mixing Chart

Fig.  2

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Energy Upshift via Mixing cont.

The most surprising and important result for this review is that there are no sub-harmonics or fractional harmonics produced. It is readily seen that the energy quickly cascades towards the higher frequencies. There is no mechanism in the sum and difference arithmetic of integral harmonics to produce a cascade toward frequencies lower than the lowest original harmonic frequency. This suggests that all radiant energy emitted by matter, mixes via superposition in a manner to increase the frequency above the lowest original frequency and thus returns the energy to the higher prime frequencies. This negates the concept of a universal heat death predicted by the second "law" of thermodynamics and demonstrates a renewed Phoenix of available radiant energy returning to the plenum of prime radiation.

The above example has assumed that the returning waste frequency is mixing with a lower harmonic. If mixing with a higher frequency is actually the predominant natural mode, then this would compound the frequency up shifting for available energy returning to the prime plenum.   ***

In the studies by others, Olbers' paradox has been used to support the hypothesis that the Universe must be expanding. The expanding Universe models can be considered equivalent to the shrinking and warping inertial space models, only viewed from a different reference frame. Their model's proposed expansion is used as an explanation for the degradation of the star field's radiant energy and the Doppler shift of the light frequency. With this model the mixing and up-shifting of frequency is the cause, and the expansion of the Universe (shrinking of inertial space) is not a required attribute.

Quote:.....If the universe is infinite, uniform and unchanging the sky at night would be bright,... as in whatever direction one looked one would eventually see a star. The number of stars would increase in proportion to the square (cube ?) of the distance from the earth; the intensity of light reaching the earth from a given star is inversely proportional to the square of the distance. Consequently, the whole sky should be about as bright as the Sun. The paradox, that this is not the case, was stated by Heinrich Olbers (1758- 1840) in 1826. .....Unquote.

The above quote is from Oxford Univ. Press, Concise Science.

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Olbers' paradox forces the question;... What happens to the light and energy that should have turned the Earth to toast?  From the prior section on mixing of frequencies it appears that the radiation and light of the stars is mixing with other prime background frequencies and as a result is being up-shifted out of the visible and electromagnetic spectrum. In this manner star light is safely returning the energy of the stars to the infinite plenum of prime radiation. Consequently, the so called ultraviolet catastrophe, apparent in black body radiation charts, may not be a catastrophe after all, but a shield and a necessary part of the universal energy cycle. If the downshift (heat death) option is considered as an answer to Olbers' lack of starlight, it is seen that it would present its own catastrophe. This would be converting the missing starlight energy into heat, which would be just as fatal as full strength starlight. The following is a chart of blackbody radiation intensity (brightness) vs. frequency, with measurement data from various instrument programs added.

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The following is another empirical example demonstrating a tendency for emitted frequencies to mix with higher frequency harmonics. These Ionospheric perturbation experiments by the Naval Research Labs reveal a similar cascading of energy toward the higher frequencies. The graphs of their data is shown in these thumbnail images.

Select and click the thumbnail to obtain the full size graph.  Additional links to the original Naval Research site are also available at the URL http://server5550.itd.nrl.navy.mil/projects/IONO/SEE2.html  Off Line???
It is recommended that readers review the SEE research data and analysis presented at the NRL site in order to gain insight into the reality of the natural radiant energy up-shift phenomena.

The closed cycle of water of our planet; from the ocean, evaporating to vapor, condensing to clouds and rain and  back to the ocean, can be "roughly" compared to the closed energy cycle existing between matter and radiation. Matter is created as interference deformations of the prime radiant energy (condensation). Stellar radiant energy is the most prominent process where energy, transformed in frequency, returns to linear radiation in the plenum of prime radiation (evaporation). The "sum and difference" phenomena of frequency mixing assures that the returning radiation always cascades toward the higher frequencies (ordered state), thus avoiding the "mythical heat death" of the universe which is ever increasing entropy [disordered state]. Consequently,  confluences of linear prime radiation, mix and manifest as matter; and matter's divergent secondary radiation returns to the universal plenum of prime radiation.

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Additional evidence indicating the prevalence of this important sum and difference mixing phenomenon is found in the equations for the Balmer spectral series. The equation for frequency is:

f = ( Rc / 4 ) - ( Rc / n^2 )

It is seen that each frequency in the series results from a difference between two terms (frequencies).  This is the same Balmer equation presented in the prior section, Quantum Steps as Harmonic Steps, although it is in a slightly different form to show the two frequency terms. With the Balmer series demonstrating as the difference of two frequencies within the visual spectrum, the mixing phenomenon suggests that there also must exist a frequency, which is the sum of each pair of the terms,... beyond the visual frequencies.

For the following discussion of Matter as Radiation it is important to note that the mixing and interference phenomena do not require the converging and diverging energy to exist on the same plane. Current observations of Stellar objects demonstrate that jets of energy and matter exit from the poles of certain objects.

Crab Nebula

Image via NASA

Click on this thumbnail image to obtain the enlarged photo of the non planar flow of energy from the poles of the Crab nebula. The back button of your browser will return your display to this web page.

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The search for the ultimately smallest building block of nature has progressed through the centuries to the point where protons, neutrons, and electrons are now recognized as the smallest identifiable stable particles. Moreover, it may yet be possible to divide some of these small particles into smaller particles.

When the question is asked, "From what is the smallest possible particle made"; the answer can not be, "it is made of smaller particles, which will be found with more powerful particle accelerators". The pivotal term in the question is "smallest possible". At this point in the quest, one can no longer say that particles are always built with smaller particles. Once at this point, the quest turns to finding the ingredients used for the creation of the smallest particle.   ***

### Basic Model of Particle

In this radiation/shadowing model the "smallest possible" particle consists of a three dimensional resonance in the prime isotropic linear radiant frequencies of space. When three or more rays within opposing wave fronts meet in open space with the proper wavelengths, polarity and phase to manifest mutual resonant interference, a stable standing wave vortex resonance is formed, which is the most basic model of a "particle". Waves and/or quanta of energy are not stored in orbit about the junction point. All potential energy, force, momentum and heat reside in the linear flow of prime radiation through the point (particle) in a manner similar to the flow of phase waves moving through group waves. This concept of matter within our domain is considered to exist within a limited spectrum of resonant frequencies/wavelengths.  The existence of a minimum wavelength suggests that a void must exist at the center of each nucleon. In the same manner the maximum wavelengths of harmonic interaction would determine the exterior limits of size. This ultimate building block "particle" consists of radiation flow; there is no "physical hard solid material" ultimate building block, smallest "particle" or sub-particle to be used for building larger hard particles. All matter consists of resonant interference vortex points, group packets, patterns, and sinks and sources via mixing in the universe of radiation.

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In creating a simplex basic particle it is expected that interference between isotropic opposing flows would result in a disturbance form (vortex ?) which would be at rest in space in relation to the zero sum of these isotropic opposing energies. For the remaining life of this new particle, which now has inertia, any change in motion must result from some type of shadowing (unbalanced flow) of the Prime background radiation. The only known cause for shadowing is due to the existence of  pre existing matter. This concept suggests that if matter is created in the crucible of isotropic prime radiation, then all matter was born with zero velocity in relation to the average velocity of all other matter. Subsequent changes in velocity would all be relative to and due to existing matter and its reference frame, and consequently  Shoemaker-Levy type comets in space will not have near infinite velocity and kinetic energy, and the ability to completely vaporize Jupiter. The maximum velocity change obtained from each encounter between objects is determined by the limited gravitational potential and the size of black shadow planets. One indicator of this speed limit system is demonstrated by the velocity of comets which encounter our Solar system. Another indicator would be the isotropic balance of a given frequency (green) starlight in free space. Given a point in space in which the green frequency of background starlight is isotropic,...it would be assumed that such a point would be at rest in relation to the average star motion.

The following forms of matter and energy are created from and exist as interference constructs of the prime radiation or sub-spectra of the prime radiation:

Matter;… anti-matter,… dark matter,… nucleons,… particles,… sub particles, …electrons,...magnetic lines as unstable matter,… virtual particles;… neutrinos,… pilot waves,… hidden variables;… "mass" and… "momentum".

The de Broglie matter waves and Schrodinger’s waves are not just mathematical probabilities but represent resonant harmonics, wave groups, standing waves and interference bands within and around the particle junction.

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In the conventional E = MC^2 model of matter, matter is made of electromagnetic radiation propagating in circles, independently existing in empty space;....a space which has no material ether nor prime radiation. Therefore, regardless of the model one favors, the ultimate building block,...is not a particle at all. The clay that the smallest particle is molded from, is radiation. The logical result of this is, "all matter consists of radiation". For many physicists accustomed to searching for a nuts and bolts, indivisible building block particle, subscribing to a radiation and shadowing non material model of reality will be as difficult and revolutionary as stepping through the looking glass. They may fear finding that our material world has too many similarities with the fairy and spirit domains of legend and religion. Will it ever be easy for anyone to visualize the hammer and anvil, as consisting of metaphysical radiation,... or to embrace the idea that a steel cable does not have tension?

The conventional static mechanistic view of physical matter is here replaced with a dynamic system model of flowing linear radiant energy. The reason that we view our material world as being different than the "spirit world" (radiation) is because matter exhibits the physical attributes of ; inertia, weight, mutual gravity, visibility and occupation of space. Yet, these attributes are all due to the interaction of the linear radiation, with the three dimensional disturbances of radiation (particles) which make up our material world. In this model the physical difference between the material world and the spirit world (radiation) is only a perception. A perception based on orthodox mental concepts.

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### Round Particles from Linear Radiation

In the above description of the basic particle it is seen that this model does not require circular radiation flow paths in order to obtain a circular interference form for the particle.  All isotropic prime radiation converging and mixing on a point in free space consists of linear flows only. Some readers may question the contention that linear flows can provide the circular form of a vortex particle. The following Moiré Pattern, Figure 6, is provided as an example of circular patterns being formed from linear elements. This figure has been formed by overlaying two transparencies with identical linear grids of dots. The top transparency is then rotated about their common centers. The circular interference patterns as seen in this figure is one of the results.

The MIT web site     http://web.mit.edu/sylvan/mas815/moire/tryit.html  provides a program written by Mark Sheppard that allows visitors to experiment with making many types of Moiré patterns. These circular interference patterns were generated with their program using the tri-grid dot selection. This provides a simplex analogy for the interference and mixing process that allows the basic particle to form as circular standing waves in a confluence of harmonic linear prime radiation.

Other authors have proposed  models of particles that consist of radiation traveling in circular paths in space without the existence of isotropic linear prime radiation. Since EM and Prime rad-iation are only known to travel in straight linear rad-ial lines in free space, it is difficult to visualize a physical process that would result in radiation traveling in circles in order to localize the energy required to form a particle.  ***

### Figure 6

Click on image for larger display.

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### Uncertainty Principle

The debate of wave verus particle duality is resolved and the reason for the existence of the Uncertainty Principal becomes obvious. There is no solid point particle with an exact position and momentum. The point particle is a junction with ray vortices and the momentum is a mutual interference interaction between this stable wave structure and the constituent background linear radiant flux. Momentum is a mutual interaction and does not just reside in a "phantom mass" of the particle. The requirement of complementarity for the quantum vs classical physics is removed, since the quantum and classical continuum concepts are merged in a radiation and shadowing model.

Heisenberg's opinion of the particle vs wave debate relating to the creation of matter is revealed by the following quote from his book "Physics and Philosophy", circa 1958.

Quote:....    It may be interesting to notice at this point that the problem---whether the primary substance can be one of the known substances or... must be something essentially different --- occurs in a somewhat different form in the most modern part of atomic physics. The physicists today try to find a fundamental law of motion for matter from which all elementary particles and their properties can be derived mathematically. This fundamental equation of motion may refer either to waves of a known type, to proton and meson waves, or... to waves of an essentially different character, which have nothing to do with any of the known waves or elementary particles.

In the first case it would mean that all other elementary particles can be reduced in some way to a few sorts of "fundamental" elementary particles (substance); actually theoretical physics has during the past two decades mostly followed this line of research.

In the second case all different elementary particles could be reduced to some universal substance which we may call energy [Prime radiation] or matter, but none of the different particles could be preferred to the others as being more fundamental. The latter view of course corresponds to the doctrine of Anaximander, and I am convinced that in modern physics this view is the correct one. .... Unquote

The bold face and brackets in the above quote have been added by this author to emphasize the terms and concepts in Heisenberg's statement that are similar to the theme of this paper. In this author's view Werner Heisenberg is advocating that science should stop looking for a basic fundamental particle and realize that energy, as the essentially different something,... is the primary substance. In this paper the prime energy is called Prime Radiation (Pf).

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### Conservation of Matter and Energy

The plenum of prime radiation (vacuum ?) provides a source and sink for all the Fourier constituents of EM radiation and matter. Ghostly neutrinos, virtual particles, zero rest mass particles, radiant energy and momentum that seem to appear, disappear, and that are sometimes ignored in particle accelerator events, are not violating the conservation of matter, momentum, and energy. The missing factors of the accelerator events no doubt inter and exit in frequency bands that are not yet recognized as detectable by present technology. Since "Mass" is a mutual, variable ephemeral quality, the conservation of mass is not considered a valid concept, yet the conservation of matter and  nucleons is modeled in this paper. No evidence of the extinction of a nucleon has yet been found. Therefore, in this model there is conservation for the number of particles, but not conservation of mass.
It seems reasonable that the harmonic confluence of radiation, that constitutes a nucleon, may eventually decay and disperse back into the plenum of prime radiation energy, but evidence of such an event is lacking.   ***

### Compression vs Tension

When one is riding an elevator it is disturbing to think or believe that the atoms of the supporting steel cable consist of radiation, and are being held together by compression from the external prime E field radiation flow (Pe) and shadowing. With this radiation and shadowing physical system, tension cannot exist. That which we call tension,... is only the reduction of compression. It is not possible to develop tension with a radiation and shadowing system.
English bridge cables exhibit a strength of 0.217 Million PSI.  From the planetary force systems plateau on the DENSARE graph it is evident that a maximum force of 86.6 Million PSI (5.97E5 MPa) is available from the gravitational spectral system. Thus the compressive wire shadowing is equivalent to  0.25 % of the pressure available with the gravitational system, or about one quarter of one percent (1/4%).
Graphene material strength (Pe shadowing) is listed as 18.8 Million PSI (130,000 MPa), 21.7 % of the maximum potential gravitational (Pg) force.

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The following Fig. 5, compares the compressive force known for some materials and processes with the maximum available from the gravitational force field system. This comparison is not intended to suggest that matter is only shadowing the gravitational sub spectrum. Other spectral force systems such as electrostatic, magnetic, inertial and the strong force may have different maximum force intensity (PSI) limits available.

If it is ever found that there are materials that exhibit strength greater than the maximum Gravitational force, 86.6 Million PSI , then it will be evident that other physical radiant force systems are contributing to the strength of materials.             * Corrected 8/2016

 Process PressureMillion PSI Percent ofGravity Max  * Reference Gravity maximum 86.6 Mega PSI 100% Planetary Shielding Diamond Anvil 66.5 Mega PSI 76.8% Nat. Bureau Stan. 1963 Diamond Anvil 36.25 Mega PSI 41.9% Carnegie Graphene 18.8 Mega PSI 21.7% Prop. Materials Si3N4 Whiskers 8.55 Mega PSI 9.9% Property Material Carbon Nitride 7.95 Mega PSI 9.2% AFOSR Carbon Nanotube 2.9 Million PSI 3.8% Prop. Material Diamond CVD process 0.79 Mega PSI 0.91% GE and DeBeers British Bridge Wire 0.217 Mega PSI 0.25 % Prop. Material

### Maximum Strength of MaterialsFigure 5

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Compression vs Tension  cont.

Visualizing the external compression concept is similar to understanding the external radiant energy concept presented by the work of Mr. Poynting. The Poynting theorem, using Maxwell’s vector equations, indicates that the power delivered via an electric transmission line actually flows from the space exterior to the wires and none of the energy flows through the wires. In the same vain, Poynting’s theorem indicates that the energy dissipated as heat and light in a resistor, actually flows into the resistor as energy from the space exterior to the resistor, even for the case of DC power. The spark energy manifested by the collapsing magnetic field of an induction coil may be the clearest example of the primary energy being exterior to the circuit. Again, when Pierre Curie and Laborde first measured the fountain of heat energy from radium with an ice calorimeter, they proposed that the energy was being created from an "exterior" unknown source. Using their viewpoint, the radium appears as a sink in one spectrum and as a source for the heat spectra and gamma spectra frequencies.   ***

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## Dimensional Units of Mass

In our conventional concept of matter, stable material objects are said to occupy space and "have weight". The error here is that matter exhibits weight but matter does not have weight. The weight force is a mutual phenomenon between the unbalanced prime radiation flow and the nucleons of the matter.

The occupation of space (bulk) occurs via a constant number of whole nucleons and electrons and is a measurable attribute of the object. With particle physics, it is possible to measure and know the number of nucleons in certain particles. It is also possible to measure the gravitational and inertial force associated with a certain object. With the ability to measure these attributes, it is known that the forces of gravity and inertia are "nearly" proportional to the nucleon count for multi-nucleon isotopes. If internal mutual nucleon shielding did not exist, ...the atom's weight and inertial interaction would continue to be "exactly" proportional to the sum of its nucleon parts as more nucleons are added.

### Nuclear Mass Shielding

As the number of nucleons per atom (mass number) increases it is found that as much as one percent of the weight force (mass) is lost. It does not seem reasonable to suggest that this loss of force per nucleon is due to the addition of incomplete or partial nucleons or that the number of nucleons changes. In this model, the mass (weight) loss indicates the force per nucleon has changed due to shielding within the nucleus. The section Gravitational Shielding in the Nucleus from the original paper provides a detailed treatment of nucleon mass shielding. The thumbnail image below  provides a web link to a full sized graph which demonstrates shielding within the nucleus. Clicking on the thumbnail image should provide the full sized graph.

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### Source of Mass

When we consider Newton's famous equation,  F = M x A , the two terms, F for Force, and A for Acceleration, are measurable and well understood. The difficulty arises when we try to quantify the bulk and the amount of matter in the object with its measured weight force (Mass).  Weighing an object is of course the simplest way to quantify the amount of matter, since it is nearly impossible to know the number of nucleons in a large object.  We must keep in mind that the weight force and inertial force depend on shielding,... which is variable,... and we also have other examples where shielding varies dramatically. When we have the ability to artificially modify the shielding, this point will become obvious. Mass (weight  force and inertia) is not a substance that resides in the object exclusively.

Presently we can decrease the magnetic force on iron at the Curie temperature via the addition of heat (radiation),... and we well know that the quantity of matter in the iron has not decreased. We also know that a moon rock's weight is significantly increased when it is brought to Earth, yet the quantity of matter has not increased. In the magnetic case we have changed the internal interference interaction,... and in the moon rock case we have changed the unbalance of the external radiant flow. Adding nucleons to a nucleus decreases the inertial "Mass" per nucleon through shielding (mass defect), but the amount of matter or the volume per nucleon has not decreased.

With this radiation and shadowing model, the Mass unit, of the Mass, Length and Time (MLT) system of dimensions for physical measurements, has additional terms. The Mass term consists of a combination of two terms, the shadowing variable (S), and the number of nucleons (n). The number (n)  is the number of nucleons in the object, and the shadowing variable (S) represents the degree of shielding for that particular element’s nuclei.

M = mass,  or  M = S x n,    and

F = M x A,    or    F = ( S x n ) x A

For non-accelerating gravitational force (gram force per gram weight) the equation is:

F = 1gf/gm x ( S x n )

where (1gf/gm) is the local force of gravity (radiation) on Earth.

For single atom objects, the number of nucleons (n) is the same as the familiar Mass Number (N) for that element within the periodic table

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From the Stepped Mass Loss % Graph above and at the URL
http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/inertia.htm#60.1
it is apparent that the shadowing coefficient (S) for solid objects, will normally fall between 0.985 and 1.0 , since the mass loss via shielding is always less then 1.5 percent.
Therefore in this model, the term Mass (M), from the Mass , Length, and Time (MLT) system of fundamental dimensional units, is replaced with the two factors, shielding (S), and the number of nucleons (n).

In the planetary gravitational and inertial mass system when the accumulated shielding has totally blocked (black shadow) the Prime radiation for the large planets, the Prime radiation no longer has the ability to increase the surface gravity beyond 1.14g.  The only way the apparent system inertial mass of the planet can be increased is through an increase of it's projected shadow area. The "apparent mass" of the planet is then obtained by multiplying its projected cross sectional area by the maximum available pressure of the Prime radiation, which is 1.52 x 10^14 tons/ sq. mile.

Today's popular standard model of science subscribes to the existence of energy residing within variable "mass", as in E = M x c squared. How does this really differ from the ancient concepts of phlogiston and caloric fluid existing within matter as hypothetical and imponderable fluids?

The mutual aspects of, an objects shadowing (interaction) and radiation’s unbalanced flow fields, give rise to local forces that only appear as remote forces. This mutual interaction between the prime radiation and matters constituent radiation is the cause of the phenomenon we call mass.
Matter as individual independent circular packets of EM radiation, storing energy, exhibiting variable "mass" and existing independently in empty space, can not exist in this Radiation/Shadowing model. The apparent axial spins of nucleon particles are a feature of the standing waves generated in the harmonic vortex of linear wave trains. This view casts doubt on the existence of rotational momentum that is normally assumed to exist in the single nucleon intrinsic spin.

All manifestations of remote force are due only to

• The local unbalanced flow conditions within the radiant space around an object,
•  the number of nucleons within the object, and
• the manner and degree to which the nucleons shield each other and mutually interfere (interact) with the local unbalanced flow (g) of the local prime radiant space.   ***

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### Links used for this Web Page "Creation Of Momentum"

Creation Of Momentum     http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/CreatMomtm.htm
"Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Force"        http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11
Electrostatic
http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/ForceInteract.htm#ElectrostaticForceSystem

Translations: Creation of Momentum
Belorussian translation by    Bohdan Zograf    May 7, 2011
http://webhostinggeeks.com/science/creation-of-momentum-be

Bulgarian Translation by M. Posner   Feb. 5, 2012
http://goscience.ru/creatmoment/

Britannica    http://www.britannica.com/
Philosophy of Nature
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/242499/gravity-wave

The Speed of Gravity  http://www.ldolphin.org/vanFlandern/gravityspeed.html
Densare    http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/grav11.htm#20.6
Inertia Section   http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/inertia.htm#60.4

Images;
Planetary Shielding   http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/grav11.htm#20.6